Garden with Natives

Footnotes and Keys


Plants alien to NC which are ranked invasive (i.e. Rank 1-3), or being watched (i.e. Watch List A-B) are marked "Invasive" in this column. (The rank is displayed as a tool-tip on hover.) See invasive status key below, or read more about invasive exotics in NC.
Plants Native to NC may be marked "Rare" in this column. (The rank or status is displayed as a tool-tip on hover.) See rank and status keys below, or read more about NC's rare plants.
Plants can be vigorous growers and may need more management to control.
Baccharis halimifolia is native to marshes and marsh borders on the outer Coastal Plain in NC, but has spread along road corridors to invade disturbed areas in the Piedmont, which is not considered its native habitat.
Native in part of its range, alien in another part.

Soil Moisture Definitions

Wet, plants periodically or often inundated by water. Water removed so slowly that water table is at or above soil surface all year; gleyed mineral or organic soils.
Water removed slowly enough to keep water table at or near surface for most of year; gleyed mineral or organic soils; permanent seepage < 30 cm below surface.
Water removed slowly enough to keep soil wet for most of growing season; permanent seepage and mottling; gleyed (greenish-blue-grey) colors common.
Water removed slowly enough to keep soil wet for a significant part of growing season; some temporary seepage and possibly mottling below 20 cm.
Moist, adequate soil moisture retention year-round. Water removed somewhat slowly in relation to supply; soil may remain moist for a significant, but sometimes short period of the year. Available soil moisture reflects climatic.
Water removed readily in relation to supply; water available for moderately short periods following precipitation.
Moist to dry, seasonally moist, periodically dry. Water removed rapidly in relation to supply; soil is moist for short periods following precipitation.
Dry and drought resistant, little moisture retention, excessively drained -- May have multiple assignments. Water removed very rapidly in relation to supply; soil is moist for brief periods following precipitation.
Very xeric
Water removed extremely rapidly in relation to supply; soil is moist for a negligible time after precipitation.

North Carolina Rank Key

North Carolina ranks are based on The Nature Conservancy's system of measuring rarity and threat status. This system is now widely used by other agencies and organizations as the best available scientific and objective assessment of a species' rarity at the state level.

Ranks begining with "G" are Global ranks, and may be interpreted similarly to NC ranks. To do so, substitute "G" for the "S" in the rank code, and "the world" for "NC" in the descriptions.

1-5 Extant Populations
Critically imperiled - Critically imperiled in North Carolina due to extreme rarity or some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extirpation (local extinction) from the state. Typically five or fewer occurrences or very few remaining individuals (<1,000).
6-20 Extant Populations
Imperiled - Imperiled in North Carolina due to rarity or some factor(s) making it very vulnerable to extirpation from the state. Typically six to 20 occurrences or few remaining individuals (1,000 to 3,000).
21-100 Extant Populations
Vulnerable - Vulnerable to extinction in North Carolina either because rare or uncommon, or found only in a restricted range (even if abundant at some locations), or due to other factors making it vulnerable to extirpation. Typically 21 to 100 occurrences or between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals.
101-1000 Extant Populations
Apparently secure - Apparently secure and widespread in North Carolina, usually with more than 100 occurrences and more than 10,000 individuals.
1001+ Extant Populations
Secure - Common, widespread, and abundant in North Carolina. Essentially ineradicable under present conditions. Typically with considerably more than 100 occurrences and more than 10,000 individuals.
Accidental in NC
0? Extant Populations
Historical - Of historical occurrence in North Carolina, with some expectation that it may be rediscovered. Its presence may not have been verified in the past 20 years. Upon verification of an extant occurrence, SH-ranked elements would typically receive an S1 rank. Note: an element is not automatically assigned an SH (or SX) rank if it has not been verified in the past 20 years; some effort must have been made to locate or relocate occurrences.
Reported from NC, but without persuasive documentation which would provide a basis for either accepting or rejecting the report
0 Extant Populations
Presumed extirpated -- Believed to be extirpated in North Carolina. Has not been located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.
Unrankable - Currently unrankable in North Carolina due to lack of information or substantially conflicting information about status or trends. More information is needed.
Not Ranked - Rank in North Carolina not yet assessed.
SE ?
Introduced in part of NC but believed native in other parts of NC
Not Applicable - A conservation status rank is not applicable because the element is not a suitable target for conservation for one of the following reasons:
  • - Hybrid - an interspecific hybrid without conservation value;
  • - Exotic Origin - not native to North Carolina;
  • - Accidental/nonregular - outside usual range and not regularly found in North Carolina;
  • - Not confidently present - never documented as present in North Carolina;
  • - Synonym - the taxon is not recognized by the N.C. Natural Heritage Program.
A rank involving two numbers indicates a range of uncertainty about the conservation rank in North Carolina. For example, a S2S3 rank indicates that the species may be S2 or S3, but existing data do not allow that determination to be made.

North Carolina Status Key

Endangered, Threatened, and Special Conern species have legally protected status in NC through NCPCP. NCNHP maintains computer and map files on Endangered, Threatened, Candidate, and Significantly Rare species; paper files are maintained on Watch List species.

Any species or higher taxon of plant whose continued existence as a viable component of the State's flora is determined to be in jeopardy (GS 19B 106:202.12).
(Endangered species may not be removed from the wild except when a permit is obtained for research, propagation, or rescue which will enhance the survival of the species.)
Any resident species of plant which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range (GS 19B 106:202.12).
(Regulations are the same as for Endangered species.)
Special Concern
Any species of plant in NC which requires monitoring but which may be collected and sold under regulations adopted under the provisions of [the Plant Protection and Conservation Act] (GS 19B 106:202.12).
(Special Concern species which are not also listed as Endangered or Threatened may be collected from the wild and sold under specific regulations. Propagated material only of Special Concern species which are also listed as Endangered or Threatened may be traded or sold under specific regulations.)
Species which are very rare in NC, generally with 1-20 populations in the state, generally substantially reduced in numbers by habitat destruction (and sometimes also by direct exploitation or disease).
These species are also either rare throughout their ranges (fewer than 100 populations total) or disjunct in NC from a main range in a different part of the country or world.
Also included are species whch may have 20-50 populations in NC, but fewer than 50 populations rangewide. These are species which have the preponderance of their distribution in NC and whose fate depends largely on their conservation here.
Also included are many species known to have once occurred in NC but with no known extant occurrences in the state (historical or extirpated species); if these species are relocated in the state, they are likely to be listed as Endangered or Threatened.
If present land use trends continue, candidate species are likely to merit listing as Endangered or Threatened.
Significantly Rare
Species which are very rare in NC, generally with 1-20 populations in the state, generally susbstantially reduced in numbers by habitat destruction (and sometimes also by direct exploitation or disease).
These species are generally more common somewhere else in their ranges, occurring in NC peripherally to their ranges, mostly in habitats which are unusual in NC.
Also included are some species with 20-100 populations in NC, if they also have only 50-100 populations rangewide and are declining.
Watch List
Any other species believed to be rare and of conservation concern in the state but not warranting active monitoring at this time.
A species which has been formally proposed for listing as Endangered, Threatened, or Special Concern, but has not yet completed the legally mandated listing process.

Federal Status Key

Federal statuses are similar to the state statuses. Species may be either endangered or threatened and they are protected by federal law. Alternatively they may be proposed as a candidate for being protected by law. See the US Fish & Wildlife Service's Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS) for more detailed information.

Bloom Area Key

State Wide

Invasive Status Key

(more about invasive exotics in NC)

Rank 1
Severe Threat
Exotic plant species that have invasive characteristics and spread readily into native plant communities, displacing native vegetation.
Rank 2
Significant Threat
Exotic plant species that display some invasive characteristics, but do not appear to present as great a threat native communities in NC as the species listed in Rank 1.
Rank 3
Lesser Threat
Exotic plant species that spread into or around disturbed areas, and are presently considered a low threat to native plant communities in NC.
Watch List A
Naturalize and may become a problem
Exotic plants that naturalize and may become a problem in the future; includes species that are or could become widespread in North Carolina. At this time, more information is needed.
Watch List B
Problems in adjacent states
Exotic plant species that cause problems in adjacent states but have not yet been reported to cause problems in NC.